# Schrodinger equations

## Non-linear Schrodinger equations

**Overview**

The free Schrodinger equation

`i u`

_{t}

`+`D

`u = 0`

where u is a complex-valued function in R^{d+1}, describes the evolution of a free non-relativistic quantum particle in d spatial dimensions. This equation can be modified in many ways, notably by adding a potential or an obstacle, but we shall be interested in non-linear perturbations such as

`u`

_{t}

`- i`D

`u = f(u,`

__u__, Du,__Du__)where D denotes spatial differentiation. In such full generality, we refer to this equation as a [#d-nls derivative non-linear Schrodinger equation] (D-NLS). If the non-linearity does not contain derivatives then we refer to this equation as a [#nls semilinear Schrodinger equation] (NLS). These equations (particularly the cubic NLS) arise as model equations from several areas of physics.

**Schrodinger estimates**

Solutions to the linear Schrodinger equation and its perturbations are either estimated in mixed space-time norms L^{q}_{t} L^{r}_{x} or L^{r}_{x} L^{q}_{t}, or in X^{s,b} spaces, defined by

`|| u ||`x

_{s,b}= || <`>`t

^{s}<`-|`x

`|`

^{2}

`>^b \hat{u} ||`

_{2}.Note that these spaces are not invariant under conjugation.

Linear space-time estimates in which the space norm is evaluated first are known as [#linear Strichartz estimates]. They are useful for NLS without derivatives, but are much less useful for derivative non-linearities. Other linear estimates include smoothing estimates and maximal function estimates. The X^{s,b} spaces are used primarily for [#bilinear bilinear estimates], although more recently [#multilinear multilinear estimates have begun to appear]. These spaces and estimates first appear in the context of the Schrodinger equation in references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993, although the analogous spaces for the wave equation appeared earlier references.html#RaRe1982 RaRe1982, references.html#Be1983 Be1983 in the context of propogation of singularities. See also references.html#Bo1993b Bo1993b, references.html#KlMa1993 KlMa1993.

**Linear estimates**

[More references needed here!]

On R^d:

- If f is in X^{0,1/2+}, then
- (Energy estimate) f is in L
^{¥}_{t}L^{2}_{x} - (Strichartz estimates) f is in L^{2(d+2)/d}
_{x,t}references.html#Sz1997 Sz1977.- More generally, f is in L
^{q}_{t}L^{r}_{x}whenever 1/q+n/2r = n/4, r < ¥, and q > 2.- The endpoint q=2, r = 2d/(d-2) is true for d³ 3 references.html#KeTa1998 KeTa1998. When d=2 it fails even in the BMO case references.html#Mo1998 Mo1998, although it still is true for radial functions references.html#Ta2000b Ta2000b, [Stv-p].In fact the estimates are true assuming for non-radial functions some additional regularity in the angular variable references.html#Ta2000b Ta2000b, although there is a limit as to low little regularity one can impose [MacNkrNaOz-p].
- In the radial case there are additional weighted smoothing estimates available references.html#Vi2001 Vi2001
- When d=1 one also has f in L
^{4}_{t}L^{¥}_{x}. - When d=1 one can refine the L
^{2}assumption on the data in rather technical ways on the Fourier side, see e.g. references.html#VaVe2001 VaVe2001. - When d=1, the L^6_{t,x} estimate has a maximizer [Kz-p2].This maximizer is in fact given by Gaussian beams, with a constant of 12^{-1/12} [Fc-p4].Similarly when d=2 with the L^4 estimate, which is also given by Gaussian beams with a constant of 2^{-1/2}

- More generally, f is in L
- (Kato estimates) D^{1/2} f is in L
^{2}_{x,loc} L^{2}_{t }references.html#Sl1987 Sl1987, references.html#Ve1988 Ve1988- When d=1 one can improve this to D^{1/2} f in L
^{¥}_{x}L^{2}_{t}

- When d=1 one can improve this to D^{1/2} f in L
- (Maximal function estimates) In all dimensions one has D^{-s} f is in L
^{2}_{x,loc}L^{¥}_{t}for all s > 1/2.- When d=1 one also has D^{-1/4} f in L
^{4}_{x}L^{¥}_{t}. - When d=2 one also has D^{-1/2} f in L
^{4}_{x}L^{¥}_{t}. The -1/2 can be raised to -1/2+1/32+e references.html#TaVa2000b TaVa2000b, with the corresponding loss in the L^{4}exponent dictated by scaling. Improvements are certainly possible.

- When d=1 one also has D^{-1/4} f in L
- Variants of some of these estimates exist for manifolds, see [BuGdTz-p]

- (Energy estimate) f is in L
- Fixed time estimates for free solutions:
- (Energy estimate) If f(0) is in L
^{2}, then f(t) is also in L^{2}. - (Decay estimate) If f(0) is in L
^{1}, then f(t) has an L^{¥}norm of O(t^{-d/2}). - Interpolants between these two are very useful for proving Strichartz estimates and obtaining scattering.

- (Energy estimate) If f(0) is in L

On T:

- X^{0,3/8} embds into L
^{4}_{x,t}references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993 (see also references.html#HimMis2001 HimMis2001). - X^{0+,1/2+} embeds into L
^{6}_{x,t}references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993. One cannot remove the + from the 0+ exponent, however it is conjectured in references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993 that one might be able to embed X^{0,1/2+} into L^{6-}_{x,t}.

On T^d:

- When d >= 1, X^{d/4 - 1/2+,1/2+} embeds into L
^{4}_{x,t}(this is essentially in references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993)- The endpoint d/4 - 1/2 is probably false in every dimension.

Strichartz estimates are also available on [#manifold more general manifolds], and in the [#potential presence of a potential].Inhomogeneous estimates are also available off

the line of duality; see [Fc-p2] for a discussion.

#### ----

**Bilinear estimates**

- On R
^{2}we have the bilinear Strichartz estimate references.html#Bo1999 Bo1999:

`|| uv ||`

_{1/2+, 0}<~ || u ||_{1/2+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{0+, 1/2+}- On R
^{2}references.html#St1997 St1997, references.html#CoDeKnSt-p CoDeKnSt-p, references.html#Ta-p2 Ta-p2 we have the sharp estimates

`||`

__u____v__||_{0, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-1/2+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-1/2+, 1/2+}`||`

__u____v__||_{-1/2-, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-3/4+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-3/4+, 1/2+}`|| u v ||`

_{-1/2-, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-3/4+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-3/4+, 1/2+}`|| u`

__v__||_{-1/4+, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-1/4+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-1/4+, 1/2+}- On R references.html#KnPoVe1996b KnPoVe1996b we have

`||`

__u____v__||_{-3/4-, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-3/4+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-3/4+, 1/2+}`|| u v ||`

_{-3/4+, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-3/4+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-3/4+, 1/2+}`|| u`

__v__||_{-1/4+, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-1/4+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-1/4+, 1/2+}and references.html#BkOgPo1998 BkOgPo1998

`|| u v ||_{L`

^{¥}

_{t}`H`

^{1/3}_{x}} <~ || u ||_{0, 1/2+}|| v ||_{0, 1/2+}Also, if u has frequency |x| ~ R and v has frequency |x| << R then we have (see e.g. [CoKeStTkTa-p4])

`|| u v ||`

_{1/2,0}<~ || u ||_{0, 1/2+}|| v ||_{0, 1/2+}and similarly for __u__v, u__v__, __uv__.

- The s indices on the right cannot be lowered, but perhaps the s indices on the left can be raised in analogy with the R
^{2}estimates. The analogues on T are also known references.html#KnPoVe1996b KnPoVe1996b:

`||`

__u____v__||_{-1/2-, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-1/2+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-1/2+, 1/2+}`|| u v ||`

_{-3/4+, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{-1/2+, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-1/2+, 1/2+}`|| u`

__v__||_{0, -1/2+}<~ || u ||_{0, 1/2+}|| v ||_{0, 1/2+}**Trilinear estimates**

- On R we have the following refinement to the L^6 Strichartz inequality [Gr-p2]:

`|| u v w ||`

_{0, 0}<~ || u ||_{0, 1/2+}|| v ||_{-1/4, 1/2+}|| w ||_{1/4, 1/2+}**Multilinear estimates**

- In R
^{2}we have the variant

`|| u_1 ... u_n ||`

_{1/2+, 1/2+}<~ || u_1 ||_{1+,1/2+}... || u_n ||_{1+,1/2+}where each factor u_i is allowed to be conjugated if desired. See references.html#St1997b St1997b, references.html#CoDeKnSt-p CoDeKnSt-p.

**Semilinear Schrodinger (NLS)**

[Many thanks to Kenji Nakanishi with valuable help with the scattering theory portion of this section. However, we are still missing many references and results, e.g. on NLS blowup. - Ed.]

The semilinear Schrodinger equation is

_{t}+ D u + l |u|^{p-1} u = 0

for p>1. (One can also add a potential term, which leads to many physically interesting problems, however the field of Schrodinger operators with potential is far too vast to even attempt to summarize here). In order to consider this problem in H^{s} one needs the non-linearity to have at least s degrees of regularity; in other words, we usually assume

This is a Hamiltonian flow with the Hamiltonian

^{2}/2 - l |u|^{p+1}/(p+1) dx

and symplectic form

__v__dx.

From the phase invariance u -> exp(i q) u one also has conservation of the L^{2} norm. The case l > 0 is focussing; l < 0 is defocussing.

The scaling regularity is s_{c} = d/2 - 2/(p-1). The most interesting values of p are the *L*^{2}*-critical* or *pseudoconformal* power p=1+4/d and the *H*^{1}*-critical* power p=1+4/(d-2) for d>2 (for d=1,2 there is no H^{1} conformal power). The power p = 1 + 2/d is also a key exponent for the scattering theory (as this is when the non-linearity |u|^{p-1} u has about equal strength with the decay t^{-d/2}). The cases p=3,5 are the most natural for physical applications since the non-linearity is then a polynomial. The cubic NLS in particular seems to appear naturally as a model equation for many different physical contexts, especially in dispersive, weakly non-linear perturbations of a plane wave. For instance, it arises as a model for dilute Bose-Einstein condensates.

Dimension d |
Scattering power 1+2/d |
L |
H |

1 |
3 |
5 |
N/A |

2 |
2 |
3 |
infinity |

3 |
5/3 |
7/3 |
5 |

4 |
3/2 |
2 |
3 |

5 |
7/5 |
9/5 |
7/3 |

6 |
4/3 |
5/3 |
2 |

The pseudoconformal transformation of the Hamiltonian gives that the time derivative of

^{2}_2 - 8 l t

^{2}/(p+1) || u ||_{p+1}^{p+1}

is equal to

This law is useful for obtaining a priori spacetime estimates on the solution given sufficient decay in space (e.g. xu(0) in L^{2}), especially in the L^{2}-critical case p=1+4/d (when the above derivative is zero). The L^{2} norm of xu(0) is sometimes known as the *pseudoconformal charge*.

The equation is invariant under Gallilean transformations

^{2}t)) u(x-vt, t).

This can be used to show ill-posedness below L^{2} in the focusing case [KnPoVe-p], and also in the defocusing case [CtCoTa-p2]. (However if the non-linearity is replaced by a non-invariant expression such as __u__^{2}, then [#Quadratic_NLS one can go below L^{2}]).

From scaling invariance one can obtain Morawetz inequalities, which usually estimate quantities of the form

in the defocussing case in terms of the H^{1/2} norm. These are useful for limiting the number of times the solution can concentrate at the origin; this is especially handy in the radially symmetric case.

In the other direction, one has LWP for s ³ 0, s_{c} references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990; see also references.html#Ts1987 Ts1987; for the case s=1, see references.html#GiVl1979 GiVl1979. In the L^{2}-subcritical cases one has GWP for all s³0 by L^{2} conservation; in all other cases one has GWP and scattering for small data in H^{s}, s ³ s_{c}. These results apply in both the focussing and defocussing cases. At the critical exponent one can prove Besov space refinements references.html#Pl2000 Pl2000, [Pl-p4]. This can then be used to obtain self-similar solutions, see references.html#CaWe1998 CaWe1998, references.html#CaWe1998b CaWe1998b, references.html#RiYou1998 RiYou1998, [MiaZg-p1], [MiaZgZgx-p], [MiaZgZgx-p2], references.html#Fur2001 Fur2001.

Now suppose we remove the regularity assumption that p is either an odd integer or larger than [s]+1. Then some of the above results are still known to hold:

- ? In the H^1 subcritical case one has GWP in H^1, assuming the nonlinearity is smooth near the origin references.html#Ka1986 Ka1986
- In R^6 one also has Lipschitz well-posedness [BuGdTz-p5]

In the periodic setting these results are much more difficult to obtain. On the one-dimensional torus T one has LWP for s > 0, s_{c} if p > 1, with the endpoint s=0 being attained when 1 <= p <= 4 references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993. In particular one has GWP in L^2 when p < 4, or when p=4 and the data is small norm.For 6 > p ³ 4 one also has GWP for random data whose Fourier coefficients decay like 1/|k| (times a Gaussian random variable) references.html#Bo1995c Bo1995c. (For p=6 one needs to impose a smallness condition on the L^{2} norm or assume defocusing; for p>6 one needs to assume defocusing).

- For the defocussing case, one has GWP in the H
^{1}-subcritical case if the data is in H^{1}. To improve GWP to scattering, it seems that needs p to be L^{2}super-critical (i.e. p > 1 + 4/d). In this case one can obtain scattering if the data is in L^{2}(|x|^{2}dx) (since one can then use the pseudo-conformal conservation law).- In the d ³ 3 cases one can remove the L
^{2}(|x|^{2}dx) assumption references.html#GiVl1985 GiVl1985 (see also references.html#Bo1998b Bo1998b) by exploiting Morawetz identities, approximate finite speed of propagation, and strong decay estimates (the decay of t^{-d/2} is integrable). In this case one can even relax the H^{1}norm to H^{s}for some s<1 references.html#CoKeStTkTa-p7 CoKeStTkTa-p7. - For d=1,2 one can also remove the L
^{2}(|x|^{2}dx) assumption references.html#Na1999c Na1999c by finding a variant of the Morawetz identity for low dimensions, together with Bourgain's induction on energy argument.

- In the d ³ 3 cases one can remove the L

In the L^2-supercritical focussing case one has blowup whenever the Hamiltonian is negative, thanks to Glassey's virial inequality

^{2}

_{t}ò x

^{2}|u|

^{2}dx ~ H(u);

see e.g. references.html#OgTs1991 OgTs1991. By scaling this implies that we have instantaneous blowup in H^s for s < s_c in the focusing case. In the defocusing case blowup

is not known, but the H^s norm can still get arbitrarily large arbitrarily quickly for s < s_c [CtCoTa-p2]

Suppose we are in the L^2 subcritical case p < 1 + 2/d, with focusing non-linearity. Then there is a unique positive radial ground state (or soliton) for each energy E. By translation and phase shift one thus obtains a four-dimensional manifold of ground states for each energy. This manifold is H^{1}-stable references.html#Ws1985 Ws1985, references.html#Ws1986 Ws1986. Below the H^1 norm, this is not known, but polynomial upper bounds on the instability are in references.html#CoKeStTkTa2003b CoKeStTkTa2003b.Multisolitons are also asymptotically stable under smooth decaying perturbations references.html#Ya1980 Ya1980, references.html#Grf1990 Grf1990, references.html#Zi1997 Zi1997, [RoScgSf-p], [RoScgSf-p2], provided that p is betweeen 1+2/d and 1+4/d.

One can go beyond scattering and ask for asymptotic completeness and existence of the wave operators. When p £ 1 + 2/d this is not possible due to the poor decay in time in the non-linear term references.html#Bb1984 Bb1984, references.html#Gs1977b Gs1977b, references.html#Sr1989 Sr1989, however at p = 1+2/d one can obtain modified wave operators for data with suitable regularity, decay, and moment conditions references.html#Oz1991 Oz1991, references.html#GiOz1993 GiOz1993, references.html#HaNm1998 HaNm1998, references.html#ShiTon2004 ShiTon2004, references.html#HaNmShiTon2004 HaNmShiTon2004. In the regime between the L^{2} and H^{1} critical powers the wave operators are well-defined in the energy space references.html#LnSr1978 LnSr1978, references.html#GiVl1985 GiVl1985, references.html#Na1999c Na1999c. At the L^{2} critical exponent 1 + 4/d one can define wave operators assuming that we impose an L^{p}_{x,t} integrability condition on the solution or some smallness or localization condition on the data references.html#GiVl1979 GiVl1979, references.html#GiVl1985 GiVl1985, references.html#Bo1998 Bo1998 (see also references.html#Ts1985 Ts1985 for the case of finite pseudoconformal charge). Below the L^{2} critical power one can construct wave operators on certain spaces related to the pseudo-conformal charge references.html#CaWe1992 CaWe1992, references.html#GiOz1993 GiOz1993, references.html#GiOzVl1994 GiOzVl1994, references.html#Oz1991 Oz1991; see also references.html#GiVl1979 GiVl1979, references.html#Ts1985 Ts1985. For H^{s} wave operators were also constructed in references.html#Na2001 Na2001. However in order to construct wave operators in spaces such as L^{2}(|x|^{2} dx) (the space of functions with finite pseudoconformal charge) it is necessary that p is larger than or equal to the rather unusual power

^{2}+ 12d + 4) + d - 2);

see references.html#NaOz2002 NaOz2002 for further discussion.

Many of the global results for H^{s} also hold true for L^{2}(|x|^{2s} dx). Heuristically this follows from the pseudo-conformal transformation, although making this rigorous is sometimes difficult. Sample results are in references.html#CaWe1992 CaWe1992, references.html#GiOzVl1994 GiOzVl1994, references.html#Ka1995 Ka1995, references.html#NkrOz1997 NkrOz1997, [NkrOz-p]. See references.html#NaOz2002 NaOz2002 for further discussion.

**NLS on manifolds and obstacles**

The NLS has also been studied on non-flat manifolds. For instance, for smooth two-dimensional compact surfaces one has LWP in H^{1} [BuGdTz-p3], while for smooth three-dimensional compact surfaces and p=3 one has LWP in H^{s} for s>1, together with weak solutions in H^{1} [BuGdTz-p3]. In the special case of a sphere one has LWP in H^{d/2 + 1/2} for d³3 and p < 5 [BuGdTz-p3].

·For the cubic equation on two-dimensional surfaces one has LWP in H^s for s > ½ [BuGdTz-p3]

oFor s >= 1 one has GWP references.html#Vd1984 Vd1984, references.html#OgOz1991 OgOz1991 and regularity references.html#BrzGa1980 BrzGa1980

oFor s < 0 uniform ill-posedness can be obtained by adapting the argument in references.html#BuGdTz2002 BuGdTz2002 or [CtCoTa-p]

oFor the [#Cubic_NLS_on_RxT sphere], [#Cubic_NLS_on_RxT cylinder], or [#Cubic_NLS_on_T^2 torus] more precise results are known

A key tool here is the development of Strichartz estimates on curved space. For general manifolds one has all the L^q_t L^r_x Strichartz estimates (locally in time), but with a loss of 1/q derivatives, see [BuGdTz-p3]. (This though compares favorably to Sobolev embedding, which would require a loss of 2/q derivatives). When the manifold is flat outside of a compact set and obeys a non-trapping condition, the optimal Strichartz estimates (locally in time) were obtained in [StTt-p].

When instead the manifold is decaying outside of a compact set and obeys a non-trapping condition, the Strichartz estimates (locally in time) with an epsilon loss were obtained by Burq [Bu-p3]; in the special case of L^4 estimates on R^3, and for non-trapping asymptotically conic manifolds, the epsilon was removed in [HslTaWun-p]

Outside of a non-trapping obstacle (with Dirichlet boundary conditions), the known results are as follows.

- If (p-1)(d-2) < 2 then one has GWP in H^1 assuming a coercivity condition (e.g. if the nonlinearity is defocusing) [BuGdTz-p4].
- Note there is a loss compared with the non-obstacle theory, where one expects the condition to be (p-1)(d-2) < 4.
- The same is true for the endpoint d=3, p=3 if the energy is sufficiently small [BuGdTz-p4].
- If d <= 4 then the flow map is Lipschitz [BuGdTz-p4]
- For d=2, p <= 3 this is in references.html#BrzGa1980 BrzGa1980, references.html#Vd1984 Vd1984, references.html#OgOz1991 OgOz1991

- If p < 1 + 2/d then one has GWP in L^2 [BuGdTz-p4]
- For d=3 GWP for smooth data is in references.html#Jor1961 Jor1961
- Again, in the non-obstacle theory one would expect p < 1 + 4/d
- if p < 1 + 1/d then one also has strong uniqueness in the class L^2 [BuGdTz-p4]

On a domain in R^d, with Dirichlet boundary conditions, the results are as follows.

- Local well-posedness in H^s for s > d/2 can be obtained by energy methods.
- In two dimensions when p <=3, global well-posedness in the energy class (assuming energy less than the ground state, in the p=3 focusing case) is in references.html#BrzGa1980 BrzGa1980, references.html#Vd1984 Vd1984, references.html#OgOz1991 OgOz1991, references.html Ca1989.More precise asymptotics of a minimal energy blowup solution in the focusing p=3 case are in [BuGdTz-p], [Ban-p3]
- When p > 1 + 4/d blowup can occur in the focusing case references.html#Kav1987 Kav1987

GWP and scattering for defocusing NLS on Schwarzchild manifolds for radial data is in references.html#LabSf1999 LabSf1999

**NLS with potential**

(Thanks to Remi Carles for much help with this section. - Ed.)

One can ask what happens to the NLS when a potential is added, thus

_{t}+ D u + l|u|^{p-1} u = V u

where V is real and time-independent. The behavior depends on whether V is positive or negative, and how V grows as |x| -> infinity. In the following results we suppose that V grows like some sort of power of x (this can be made precise with estimates on the derivatives of V, etc.) A particularly important case is that of the quadratic potential V = +- |x|^2; this can be used to model a confining magnetic trap for Bose-Einstein condensation. Most of the mathematical research has gone into the isotropic quadatic potentials, but anisotropic ones (given by quadratic forms other than |x|^2) are also of physical interest.

- If V is linear, i.e. V(x) = E.x, then the potential can in fact be eliminated by a change of variables [CarNky-p]
- If V is smooth, positive, and has bounded derivatives up to order 2 (i.e. is quadratic or subquadratic), then the theory is much the same as when there is no potential - one has decay estimates, Strichartz estimates, and the usual local and global well posedness theory (see references.html#Fuj1979 Fuj1979, references.html#Fuj1980 Fuj1980, references.html#Oh1989 Oh1989)
- When V is exactly a positive quadratic potential V = w^2 |x|^2, then one has blowup for the focusing nonlinearity for negative energy in the L^2 supercritical or critical, H^1 subcritical case references.html#Car2002b Car2002b.
- In the L^2 critical case one can in fact eliminate this potential by a change of variables references.html#Car2002c Car2002c. One consequence of this change of variables is that one can convert the usual solitary wave solution for NLS into a solution that blows up in finite time (cf. how the pseudoconformal transform is used to achieve a similar effect without the potential).

- When V is exactly a negative quadratic potential, one can prevent blowup even in the focusing case if the potential is sufficiently strong [Car-p]. Indeed, one has a scattering theory in this case [Car-p]
- If V grows faster than quadratic, then there are significant problems due to the failure of smoothness of the fundamental solution; if V is also negative, then even the linear theory fails (for instance, the Hamiltonian need not be essentially self-adjoint on test functions). However for positive superquadratic potentials partial results are still possible references.html#YaZgg2001 YaZgg2001.

Much work has also been done on the semiclassical limit of these equations; see for instance references.html#BroJer2000 BroJer2000, references.html#Ker2002 Ker2002, [CarMil-p], references.html#Car2003 Car2003. For work on standing waves for NLS with quadratic potential, see references.html#Fuk2001 Fuk2001, references.html#Fuk2003 Fuk2003, references.html#FukOt2003 FukOt2003, references.html#FukOt2003b FukOt2003b.

One component of the theory of NLS with potential is that of Strichartz estimates with potential, which in turn may be derived from dispersive estimates with potential, although it is possible to obtain Strichartz estimates without a dispersive inequality. Both types of estimates can only be expected to hold after first projecting to the absolutely continuous part of the spectrum (although this is not necessary if the potential is positive).

The situation for dispersive estimates (which imply Strichartz), and related estimates such as local L^2 decay, and of L^p boundedness of wave operators (which implies both the dispersive inequality and Strichartz) is as follows. Here we consider potentials which could oscillate; relying mostly on magnitude bounds on V rather than on symbol-type bounds.

- When d=1 one has dispersive estimates whenever <x> V is L^1 [GbScg-p].
- For potentials such that <x>^{3/2+} V is in L^1, this is essentially in references.html#Wed2000 Wed2000; the stronger L^p boundedness of wave operators in this case was established in references.html#Wed1999 Wed1999, references.html#ArYa2000 ArYa2000.

- When d=2, relatively little is known.
- L^p boundedness of wave operators for potentials decaying like <x>^{-6-}, assuming 0 is not a resonance nor eigenvalue, is in references.html#Ya1999 Ya1999, references.html#JeYa2002 JeYa2002. The method does not quite extend to p=1,infinity and thus does not directly imply the dispersive estimate although it does give Strichartz estimates for 1 < p < infinity.
- Local L^2 decay and resolvent estimates for low frequencies for polynomially decaying potentials are obtained in references.html#JeNc2001 JeNc2001

- When d=3 one has dispersive estimates whenever V decays like <x>^{-3-} and 0 is neither a eigenvalue nor resonance [GbScg-p]
- For potentials which decay like <x>^{-7-} and whose Fourier transform is in L^1, a version of this estimate is in references.html#JouSfSo1991 JouSfSo1991
- A related local L^2 decay estimate was obtained for exponentially decaying potentials in references.html#Ra1978 Ra1978; this was refined to polynomially decaying potentials (e.g. <x>^{-3-}) (with additional resolvent estimates at low frequencies) in references.html#JeKa1980 JeKa1980.
- L^p boundedness of wave operators was established in references.html#Ya1995 Ya1995 for potentials decaying like <x>^{-5-} and for which 0 is neither an eigenvalue nor a resonance.
- If 0 is a resonance one cannot expect to obtain the optimal decay estimate; at best one can hope for t^{-1/2} (see references.html#JeKa1980 JeKa1980).
- Dispersive estimates have also been proven for potentials whose Rollnik and global Kato norms are both smaller than the critical value of 4pi [RoScg-p]. Indeed their arguments partly extend to certain time-dependent potentials (e.g. quasiperiodic potentials), once one also imposes a smallness condition on the L^{3/2} norm of V
- If the potential is in L^2 and has finite global Kato norm, then one has dispersive estimates for high frequencies at least [RoScg-p].
- Strichartz estimates have been obtained for potentials decaying like <x>^{-2-} if 0 is neither a zero nor a resonance [RoScg-p]
- This has been extended to potentials decaying exactly like |x|^2 and d >= 3 assuming some radial regularity and if the potential is not too negative [BuPlStaTv-p], [BuPlStaTv-p2]; in particular one has Strichartz estimates for potentials V = a/|x|^2, d >= 3, and a > -(n-2)^2/4 (this latter condition is necessary to avoid bound states).

- For d > 3, most of the d=3 results should extend. For instance, the following is known.
- For potentials which decay like <x>^{-d-4-} and whose Fourier transform is in L^1, dispersive estimates are in references.html#JouSfSo1991 JouSfSo1991
- Local L^2 decay and resolvent estimates for low frequencies for polynomially decaying potentials are obtained in references.html#Je1980 Je1980, references.html#Je1984 Je1984.

For finite rank perturbations of the Laplacian, where each rank one perturbation is generated by a bump function and the bump functions are sufficiently far apart in physical space, decay and Schrodinger estimates were obtained in references.html#NieSf2003 NieSf2003.The bounds obtained grow polynomially in the number of rank one perturbations.

Local smoothing estimates seem to be more robust than dispersive estimates, holding in a wider range of situations.For instance, in R^d, any potential in L^p for p >= d/2, as well as inverse square potentials 1/|x|^2, and linear combinations of these, have local smoothing references.html#RuVe1994 RuVe1994.Note one does not need to project away the bound states for such estimates (as the bound states tend to already be rather smooth).However, for p < d/2, one can have breakdown of local smoothing (and also dispersive and Strichartz estimates) [Duy-p]

For time-dependent potentials, very little is known.If the potential is small and quasiperiodic in time (or more generally, has a highly concentrated Fourier transform in time) then dispersive and Strichartz estimates were obtained in [RoScg-p]; the smallness is used to rule out bound states, among other things.In the important case of the charge transfer model (the time-dependent potential that arises in the stability analysis of multisolitons) see references.html#Ya1980 Ya1980, references.html#Grf1990 Grf1990, references.html#Zi1997 Zi1997, [RoScgSf-p], [RoScgSf-p2], where energy, dispersive, and Strichartz estimates are obtained, with application to the asymptotic stability of multisolitons.

The nonlinear interactions between the bound states of a Schrodinger operator with potential (which have no dispersion or decay properties in time) and the absolutely continuous portion of the spectrum (where one expects dispersion and Strichartz estimates) is not well understood.A preliminary result in this direction is in [GusNaTsa-p], which shows in R^3 that if there is only one bound state, and Strichartz estimates hold in the remaining portion of the spectrum, and the non-linearity does not have too high or too low a power (say 4/3 <= p <= 4, or a Hartree-type nonlinearity) then every small H^1 solution will asymptotically decouple into a dispersive part evolving like the linear flow (with potential), plus a nonlinear bound state, with the energy and phase of this bound state eventually stabilizing at a constant.In [SfWs-p] the interaction of a ground state and an excited state is studied, with the generic behavior consisting of collapse to the ground state plus radiation.

**Unique continuation**

A question arising by analogy from the theory of unique continuation in elliptic equations, and also in control theory, is the following: if u is a solution to a nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and u(t_0) and u(t_1) is specified on a domain D at two different times t_0, t_1, does this uniquely specify the solution everywhere at all other intermediate times?

- For the 1D cubic NLS, with D equal to a half-line, and u assumed to vanish on D, this is in references.html#Zg1997 Zg1997.
- For general NLS with analytic non-linearity, and with u assumed compactly supported, this is in references.html#Bo1997b Bo1997b.
- For D the complement of a convex cone, and arbitrary NLS of polynomial growth with a bounded potential term, this is in references.html#KnPoVe2003 KnPoVe2003
- For D in a half-plane, and allowing potentials in various Lebesgue spaces, this is in [IonKn-p]
- A local unique continuation theorem (asserting that a non-zero solution cannot vanish on an open set) is in reference.html#Isk1993 Isk1993

**Quadratic NLS on R**

- Scaling is s
_{c}= -3/2. - For any quadratic non-linearity one can obtain LWP for s ³ 0 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990, references.html#Ts1987 Ts1987.
- If the quadratic non-linearity is of
__u____u__or u u type then one can push LWP to s > -3/4. references.html#KnPoVe1996b KnPoVe1996b.- This can be improved to the Besov space B^{-3/4}_{2,1} [MurTao-p]. The X^{s,b} bilinear estimates fail for H^{-3/4} references.html#NaTkTs-p NaTkTs2001.

- If the quadratic non-linearity is of u
__u__type then one can push LWP to s > -1/4. references.html#KnPoVe1996b KnPoVe1996b. - Since these equations do not have L
^{2}conservation it is not clear whether there is any reasonable GWP result, except possibly for very small data. - If the non-linearity is |u|u then there is GWP in L
^{2}thanks to L^{2}conservation, and ill-posedness below L^{2}by Gallilean invariance considerations in both the focusing [KnPoVe-p] and defocusing [CtCoTa-p2] cases.

**Quadratic NLS on T**

- For any quadratic non-linearity one can obtain LWP for s ³ 0 references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993. In the Hamiltonian case (|u| u) this is sharp by Gallilean invariance considerations [KnPoVe-p]
- If the quadratic non-linearity is of
__u____u__or u u type then one can push LWP to s > -1/2. references.html#KnPoVe1996b KnPoVe1996b. - In the Hamiltonian case (a non-linearity of type |u| u) we have GWP for s ³ 0 by L
^{2}conservation. In the other cases it is not clear whether there is any reasonable GWP result, except possibly for very small data.

**Quadratic NLS on R**

^{2}

- Scaling is s
_{c}= -1. - For any quadratic non-linearity one can obtain LWP for s ³ 0 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990, references.html#Ts1987 Ts1987.
- In the Hamiltonian case (|u| u) this is sharp by Gallilean invariance considerations [KnPoVe-p]

- If the quadratic non-linearity is of
__u____u__or u u type then one can push LWP to s > -3/4. references.html#St1997 St1997, references.html#CoDeKnSt-p CoDeKnSt-p.- This can be improved to the Besov space B^{-3/4}_{2,1} [MurTao-p].

- If the quadratic non-linearity is of u
__u__type then one can push LWP to s > -1/4. references.html#Ta-p2 Ta-p2. - In the Hamiltonian case (a non-linearity of type |u| u) we have GWP for s ³ 0 by L
^{2}conservation. In the other cases it is not clear whether there is any reasonable GWP result, except possibly for very small data.- Below L^2 we have ill-posedness by Gallilean invariance considerations in both the focusing [KnPoVe-p] and defocusing [CtCoTa-p2] cases.

**Quadratic NLS on T**

^{2}

- If the quadratic non-linearity is of
__u____u__type then one can obtain LWP for s > -1/2 references#Gr-p2 Gr-p2

**Quadratic NLS on R**

^{3}- Scaling is s
_{c}= -1/2. - For any quadratic non-linearity one can obtain LWP for s ³ 0 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990, references.html#Ts1987 Ts1987.
- If the quadratic non-linearity is of
__u____u__or u u type then one can push LWP to s > -1/2. references.html#St1997 St1997, references.html#CoDeKnSt-p CoDeKnSt-p. - If the quadratic non-linearity is of u
__u__type then one can push LWP to s > -1/4. references.html#Ta-p2 Ta-p2. - In the Hamiltonian case (a non-linearity of type |u| u) we have GWP for s ³ 0 by L
^{2}conservation. In the other cases it is not clear whether there is any reasonable GWP result, except possibly for very small data.- Below L^2 we have ill-posedness by Gallilean invariance considerations in both the focusing [KnPoVe-p] and defocusing [CtCoTa-p2] cases.

**Quadratic NLS on T**

^{3}- If the quadratic non-linearity is of
__u____u__type then one can obtain LWP for s > -3/10 references#Gr-p2 Gr-p2

**Cubic NLS on R**

- Scaling is s
_{c}= -1/2. - LWP for s ³ 0 references.html#Ts1987 Ts1987, references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990 (see also references.html#GiVl1985 GiVl1985).
- This is sharp for reasons of Gallilean invariance and for soliton solutions in the focussing case [KnPoVe-p]
- The result is also sharp in the defocussing case [CtCoTa-p], due to Gallilean invariance and the asymptotic solutions in references.html#Oz1991 Oz1991.
- Below s ³0 the solution map was known to be not C
^{2}in references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993

- For initial data equal to a delta function there are serious problems with existence and uniqueness [KnPoVe-p].
- However, there exist Gallilean invariant spaces which scale below L
^{2}for which one has LWP. They are defined in terms of the Fourier transform references.html#VaVe2001 VaVe2001. For instance one has LWP for data whose Fourier transform decays like |x|^{-1/6-}. Ideally one would like to replace this with |x|^{0-}.

- This is sharp for reasons of Gallilean invariance and for soliton solutions in the focussing case [KnPoVe-p]
- GWP for s ³ 0 thanks to L
^{2}conservation- GWP can be pushed below to certain of the Gallilean spaces in [VaVe-p]. For instance one has GWP when the Fourier transform of the data decays like |x|^{-5/12-}. Ideally one would like to replace this with 0-.

- If the cubic non-linearity is of
__u____u____u__or u u u type (as opposed to the usual |u|^{2}u type) then one can obtain LWP for s > -5/12 references#Gr-p2 Gr-p2. If the nonlinearity is of__u____u__u type then one has LWP for s > -2/5 references#Gr-p2 Gr-p2. *Remark*: This equation is sometimes known as the Zakharov-Shabat equation and is completely integrable (see e.g. [[references.html#AbKauNeSe1974 AbKauNeSe1974]]; all higher order integer Sobolev norms stay bounded. Growth of fractional norms might be interesting, though.- In the focusing case there are soliton and multisoliton solutions, however the defocusing case does not admit such solutions.
- In the focussing case there is a unique positive radial ground state for each energy E. By translation and phase shift one thus obtains a four-dimensional manifold of ground states (aka solitons) for each energy. This manifold is H
^{1}-stable references.html#Ws1985 Ws1985, references.html#Ws1986 Ws1986. Below the energy norm orbital stability is not known, however there are polynomial bounds on the instability references.html#CoKeStTkTa2003b CoKeStTkTa2003b. - This equation is related to the evolution of vortex filaments under the localized induction approximation, via the Hasimoto transformation, see e.g. references.html#Hm1972 Hm1972
- Solutions do not scatter to free Schrodinger solutions. In the focussing case this can be easily seen from the existence of solitons. But even in the defocussing case wave operators do not exist, and must be replaced by modified wave operators references.html#Oz1991 Oz1991, see also [CtCoTa-p]. For small, decaying data one also has asymptotic completeness references.html#HaNm1998 HaNm1998.
- For large Schwartz data, these asymptotics can be obtained by inverse scattering methods references.html#ZkMan1976 ZkMan1976, references.html#SeAb1976 SeAb1976, references.html#No1980 No1980, references.html#DfZx1994 DfZx1994
- For large real analytic data, these asymptotics were obtained in references.html#GiVl2001 GiVl2001
- Refinements to the convergence and regularity of the modified wave operators was obtained in references.html#Car2001 Car2001

- On the half line R^+, global well-posedness in H^2 was established in references.html#CrrBu.1991 CrrBu.1991, references.html#Bu.1992 Bu.1992
- On the interval, the inverse scattering method was applied to generate solutions in [GriSan-p].

**Cubic NLS on T**

- LWP for s³0 references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993.
- For s<0 one has failure of uniform local well-posedness [CtCoTa-p], [BuGdTz-p].In fact, the solution map is not even continuous from H^s to H^sigma for any sigma, even for small times and small data [CtCoTa-p3].

- GWP for s ³ 0 thanks to L
^{2}conservation references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993.- One also has GWP for random data whose Fourier coefficients decay like 1/|k| (times a Gaussian random variable) references.html#Bo1995c Bo1995c. Indeed one has an invariant measure.

- If the cubic non-linearity is of
__u____u____u__type (instead of |u|^{2}u) then one can obtain LWP for s > -1/3 references#Gr-p2 Gr-p2 *Remark*: This equation is completely integrable [[references.html#AbMa1981 AbMa.1981]]; all higher order integer Sobolev norms stay bounded. Growth of fractional norms might be interesting, though.- Methods of inverse scattering have also been successfully applied to cubic NLS on an interval [FsIt-p]

**Cubic NLS on R**

^{2}

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 0, thus this is an [#L^2-critical_NLS L^2 critical NLS]. - LWP for s ³ 0 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.
- For s=0 the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.
- LWP has also been obtained in Besov spaces references.html#Pl2000 Pl2000, [Pl-p] and Fourier-Lorentz spaces [CaVeVi-p] at the scaling of L
^{2}. This is also connected with the construction of self-similar solutions to NLS (which are generally not in the usual Sobolev spaces globally in space). - Below L^2 we have ill-posedness by Gallilean invariance considerations in both the focusing [KnPoVe-p] and defocusing [CtCoTa-p2] cases.

- GWP for s>4/7 in the defocussing case references.html#CoKeStTkTa2002 CoKeStTkTa2002
- For s>3/5 this was shown in references.html#Bo1998 Bo1998.
- For s>2/3 this was shown in references.html#Bo1998 Bo1998, references.html#Bo1999 Bo1999.
- For s³ 1 this follows from Hamiltonian conservation.
- For small L
^{2}data one has GWP and scattering for any cubic nonlinearity (not necessarily defocussing or Hamiltonian). More precisely, one has global well-posedness whenever the data has an L^{2}norm strictly smaller than the ground state Q references.html#Me1993 Me1993. If the L^{2}norm is exactly equal to that of Q then one has blow-up if and only if the data is a pseudo-conformal transformation of the ground state references.html#Me1993 Me1993, references.html#Me1992 Me1992. In particular, the ground state is unstable.- Scattering is known whenever the solution is sufficiently small in L^2 norm, or more generally whenever the solution is L
^{4}in spacetime.Presumably one in fact has scattering whenever the mass is strictly smaller than the ground state, though this has not yet been established.

- Scattering is known whenever the solution is sufficiently small in L^2 norm, or more generally whenever the solution is L
- The s>4/7 result is probably improvable by correction term methods.
- Remark: s=1/2 is the least regularity for which the non-linear part of the solution has finite energy (Bourgain, private communication).
- Question: What happens for large L
^{2}data? It is known that the only way GWP can fail at L^{2}is if the L^{2}norm concentrates references.html#Bo1998 Bo1998. Blowup examples with multiple blowup points are known, either simultaneously references.html#Me1992 Me1992 or non-simultaneously references.html#BoWg1997 BoWg1997. It is conjectured that the amount of energy which can go into blowup points is quantized. The H^1 norm in these examples blows up like |t|^{-1}. It is conjectured that slower blow-up examples exist, in particular numerics suggest a blowup rate of |t|^{-1/2} (log log|t|)^{1/2} references.html#LanPapSucSup1988 LanPapSucSup1988; interestingly, however, if we perturb NLS to the [misc.html#Zakharov-2 Zakharov system] then one can only have blowup rates of |t|^{-1}.

*Remark*: This equation is pseudo-conformally invariant. Heuristically, GWP results in H^{s}transfer to GWP and scattering results in L^{2}(|x|^{2s}) thanks to the pseudo-conformal transformation. Thus for instance GWP and scattering occurs this weighted space for s>2/3 (the corresponding statement for, say, s > 4/7 has not yet been checked).- In the periodic case the H^k norm grows like O(t^{2(k-1)+}) as long as the H
^{1}norm stays bounded. In the non-periodic case it is O(t^{(k-1)+}) references.html#St1997 St1997, references.html#St1997b St1997b; this was improved to t^{2/3 (k-1)+} in references.html#CoDeKnSt-p CoDeKnSt-p, and also generalized to higher order multilinearity. A preliminary analysis suggests that the I-method can push the growth bounds down to t^{(k-1)+/2}. - Question: Is there scattering in the cubic defocussing case, in L
^{2}or H^{1}? (certainly not in the focussing case thanks to solitons). This problem seems of comparable difficulty to the GWP problem for large L^{2}data (indeed, the pseudo-conformal transformation morally links the two problems).- For powers slightly higher than cubic, the answer is yes references.html#Na1999c Na1999c, and indeed we have bounded H^k norms in this case [Bourgain?].
- If the data has sufficient decay then one has scattering. For instance if xu(0) is in L
^{2}references.html#Ts1985 Ts1985. This was improved to x^{2/3+} u(0) in L^{2}in references.html#Bo1998 Bo1998, references.html#Bo1999 Bo1999; the above results on GWP will probably also extend to scattering.

- This equation has also been studied on bounded domains, see [BuGdTz-p]. Sample results: blowup solutions exist close to the ground state, with a blowup rate of (T-t)
^{-1}. If the domain is a disk then uniform LWP fails for 1/5 < s < 1/3, while for a square one has LWP for all s>0. In general domains one has LWP for s>2.

**Cubic NLS on RxT and T**

^{2}

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 0. - For RxT one has LWP for s³0 [TkTz-p2].
- For TxT one has LWP for s>0 references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993.
- In the defocussing case one has GWP for s³1 in both cases by Hamiltonian conservation.
- On T x T one can improve this to s > 2/3 by the I-method by De Silva, Pavlovic, Staffilani, and Tzirakis (and also in an unpublished work of Bourgain).

- In the focusing case on TxT one has blowup for data close to the ground state, with a blowup rate of (T-t)
^{-1}[BuGdTz-p] - If instead one considers the sphere S
^{2}then uniform local well-posedness fails for 3/20 < s < 1/4 references.html#BuGdTz2002 BuGdTz2002, [Ban-p], but holds for s>1/4 [BuGdTz-p7].- For s > ½ this is in [BuGdTz-p3].
- These results for the sphere can mostly be generalized to other Zoll manifolds.

**Cubic NLS on R**

^{3}- Scaling is s
_{c}= 1/2. - LWP for s ³ 1/2 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.
- For s=1/2 the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.
- For s<1/2 we have ill-posedness, indeed the H^s norm can get arbitrarily large arbitrarily quickly [CtCoTa-p2]. In the focusing case we have instantaneous blowup from the virial identity and scaling.
- For s > 1/2 there is unconditional well-posedness references.html#FurPlTer2001 FurPlTer2001
- For s >= 2/3 this is in references.html#Ka1995 Ka1995.

- GWP and scattering for s > 4/5 in the defocussing case references.html#CoKeStTkTa-p8 CoKeStTkTa-p8
- For s > 5/6 GWP is in references.html#CoKeStTkTa2002 CoKeStTkTa2002
- For s>11/13 GWP is in references.html#Bo1999 Bo1999
- For radial data and s > 5/7 GWP and scattering is in s>5/7 references.html#Bo1998b Bo1998b, references.html#Bo1999 Bo1999.
- For s³ 1 this follows from Hamiltonian conservation. One also has scattering in this case references.html#GiVl1985 GiVl1985.
- For small H^{1/2} data one has GWP and scattering for any cubic nonlinearity (not necessarily defocussing or Hamiltonian). More generally one has scattering whenever the solution is L
^{5}in spacetime. - In the focusing case one has blowup whenever the energy is negative references.html#Gs1977 Gs1977, references.html#OgTs1991 OgTs1991, and in particular one has blowup arbitrarily close to the ground state references#BerCa1981 BerCa1981, references.html#SaSr1985 SaSr1985.If however the energy remains bounded (which is automatic in the defocusing case) then one has at most polynomial growth of high Sobolev norms, with the local higher Sobolev norms H^s_loc remaining bounded for all time references.html#Bo1996c Bo1996c, references.html#Bo1998b Bo1998b.Also in the focusing radial case with bounded energy, the solution becomes asymptotically smooth and spatially decaying away from the origin, once one strips out the radiation component [Ta-p7]

**Cubic NLS on T**

^{3}- Scaling is s
_{c}= 1/2. - LWP is known for s >1/2 references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993.

**Cubic NLS on R**

^{4}

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 1. - LWP is known for s ³ 1 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.
- For s=1 the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.
- For s<1 we have ill-posedness, indeed the H^s norm can get arbitrarily large arbitrarily quickly [CtCoTa-p2]. In the focusing case we have instantaneous blowup from the virial identity and scaling.

- GWP and scattering for s³1 in the radial case references.html#Bo1999 Bo1999. A major obstacle is that the Morawetz estimate only gives L
^{4}-type spacetime control rather than L^{6}.- For small non-radial H
^{1}data one has GWP and scattering. In fact one has scattering whenever the solution has a bounded L^{6}norm in spacetime.

- For small non-radial H

The large data non-radial case is still open, and very interesting. The main difficulty is infinite speed of propagation and the possibility that the H^{1} norm could concentrate at several different places simultaneously.

**Cubic NLS on T**

^{4}

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 1. - LWP is known for s ³ 2 references.html#Bo1993d Bo1993d.

**Cubic NLS on S**

^{6}- Scaling is s
_{c}= 2. - Uniform LWP holds in H
^{s}for s > 5/2 [BuGdTz-p3]. - Uniform LWP fails in the energy class H
^{1}[BuGdTz-p2]; indeed we have this failure for any NLS on S^6, even ones for which the energy is subcritical. This is in contrast to the Euclidean case, where one has LWP for powers p < 2.

**Quartic NLS on R**

- Scaling is s
_{c}= -1/6. - For any quartic non-linearity one can obtain LWP for s ³ 0 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990
- If the quartic non-linearity is of
__u____u____u____u__type then one can obtain LWP for s > -1/6. For |u|^{4}one has LWP for s > -1/8, while for the other three types u^{4}, u u u__u__, or u__uuu__one has LWP for s > -1/6 references#Gr-p2 Gr-p2. - In the Hamiltonian case (a non-linearity of type |u|^3 u) we have GWP for s ³ 0 by L
^{2}conservation. In the other cases it is not clear whether there is any reasonable GWP result, except possibly for very small data.

**Quartic NLS on T**

- For any quartic non-linearity one has LWP for s>0 references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993.
- If the quartic non-linearity is of
__u____u____u____u__type then one can obtain LWP for s > -1/6 references#Gr-p2 Gr-p2. - If the nonlinearity is of |u|
^{3}u type one has GWP for random data whose Fourier coefficients decay like 1/|k| (times a Gaussian random variable) references.html#Bo1995c Bo1995c. Indeed one has an invariant measure.

**Quartic NLS on R^2**

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 1/3. - For any quartic non-linearity one can obtain LWP for s ³ s
_{c}references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.- For s<s_c we have ill-posedness, indeed the H^s norm can get arbitrarily large arbitrarily quickly [CtCoTa-p2]. In the focusing case we have instantaneous blowup from the virial identity and scaling.

- In the Hamiltonian case (a non-linearity of type |u|^3 u) we have GWP for s ³ 1 references.html#Ka1986 Ka1986.
- This has been improved to s > 1-e in references.html#CoKeStTkiTa2003c CoKeStTkTa2003c in the defocusing Hamiltonian case. This result can of course be improved further.
- Scattering in the energy space references.html#Na1999c Na1999c in the defocusing Hamiltonian case.
- One also has GWP and scattering for small H^{1/3} data for any quintic non-linearity.

**Quintic NLS on R**

- This equation may be viewed as a simpler version of [#dnls-3_on_R cubic DNLS], and is always at least as well-behaved. It has been proposed as a modifiation of the Gross-Pitaevski approximation for low-dimesional Bose liquids references.html#KolNewStrQi2000 KolNewStrQi2000
- Scaling is s
_{c}= 0, thus this is an [#L^2-critical_NLS L^2 critical NLS]. - LWP is known for s ³ 0 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990, references.html#Ts1987 Ts1987.
- For s=0 the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.

- GWP for s>4/9 in the defocussing case [Tzi-p]
- For s>1/2 this is in references.html#CoKeStTkTa-p6 CoKeStTkTa-p6
- For s>2/3 this is in references.html#CoKeStTkTa-p4 CoKeStTkTa-p4.
- For s > 32/33 this is implicit in references.html#Tk-p Tk-p.
- For s³ 1 this follows from LWP and Hamiltonian conservation.
- One has GWP and scattering for small L
^{2}data for any quintic non-linearity. The corresponding problem for large L^{2}data and defocussing nonlinearity is very interesting, but probably very difficult, perhaps only marginally easier than the corresponding problem for the [#Cubic_NLS_on_R^2 2D cubic NLS]. It would suffice to show that the solution has a bounded L^{6}norm in spacetime. - Explicit blowup solutions (with large L
^{2}norm) are known in the focussing case references.html#BirKnPoSvVe1996 BirKnPoSvVe1996. The blowup rate in H^{1}is t^{-1}in these solutions. This is not the optimal blowup rate; in fact an example has been constructed where the blowup rate is |t|^{-1/2} (log log|t|)^{1/2}[Per-p]. Furthermore, one always this blowup behavior (or possibly slower, though one must still blow up by at least |t|^{-1/2}) whenever the energy is negative [MeRap-p], [MeRap-p2], and one either assumes that the mass is close to the critical mass or that xu is in L^2.- One can modify the explicit solutions from references.html#BirKnPoSvVe1996 BirKnPoSvVe1996 and in fact create solutions which blow up at any collection of specified points in spacetime references.html#BoWg1997 BoWg1997, references.html#Nw1998 Nw1998.

*Remark*: This equation is pseudo-conformally invariant. GWP results in H^{s}automatically transfer to GWP and scattering results in L^{2}(|x|^{s}) thanks to the pseudo-conformal transformation.- Solitons are H
^{1}-unstable.

**Quintic NLS on T**

- This equation may be viewed as a simpler version of cubic DNLS, and is always at least as well-behaved.
- Scaling is s
_{c}= 0. - LWP is known for s > 0 references.html#Bo1993 Bo1993.
- For s < 0 the solution map is not uniformly continuous from C^k to C^{-k} for any k [CtCoTa-p3].

- GWP is known in the defocusing case for s > 4/9 (De Silva, Pavlovic, Staffilani, Tzirakis)
- For s > 2/3 this is commented upon in [Bo-p2] and is a minor modification of [CoKeStTkTa-p].
- For s >= 1 one has GWP in the defocusing case, or in the focusing case with small L^2 norm, by Hamiltonian conservation.
- In the defocusing case one has GWP for random data whose Fourier coefficients decay like 1/|k| (times a Gaussian random variable) references.html#Bo1995c Bo1995c; this is roughly of the regularity of H^{1/2}. Indeed one has an invariant measure. In the focusing case the same result holds assuming the L
^{2}norm is sufficiently small.

- In the defocusing case one has GWP for random data whose Fourier coefficients decay like 1/|k| (times a Gaussian random variable) references.html#Bo1995c Bo1995c; this is roughly of the regularity of H^{1/2}. Indeed one has an invariant measure. In the focusing case the same result holds assuming the L

**Quintic NLS on R**

^{2}

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 1/2. - LWP is known for s ³ 1/2 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.
- For s=1/2 the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.
- For s<s_c we have ill-posedness, indeed the H^s norm can get arbitrarily large arbitrarily quickly [CtCoTa-p2]. In the focusing case we have instantaneous blowup from the virial identity and scaling.

- GWP for s ³ 1 by Hamiltonian conservation.
- This has been improved to s > 1-e in references.html#CoKeStTkTa2003b CoKeStTkTa2003b. This result can of course be improved further.
- Scattering in the energy space references.html#Na1999c Na1999c
- One also has GWP and scattering for small H^{1/2} data for any quintic non-linearity.

**Quintic NLS on R**

^{3}

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 1. - LWP is known for s ³ 1 references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.
- For s=1 the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.
- For s<s_c we have ill-posedness, indeed the H^s norm can get arbitrarily large arbitrarily quickly [CtCoTa-p2]. In the focusing case we have instantaneous blowup from the virial identity and scaling.

- GWP and scattering for s³1 in the defocusing case [CoKeStTkTa-p]
- For radial data this is in [Bo-p], references.html#Bo1999 Bo1999.
- Blowup can occur in the focussing case from Glassey's virial identity.

**Septic NLS on R**

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 1/6. - LWP is known for s ³ s
_{c}references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.- For s=s
_{c}the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.

- For s=s
- GWP for s ³ 1 by Hamiltonian conservation.
- This has been improved to s > 1-e in references.html#CoKeStTkTa2003b CoKeStTkTa2003b in the defocusing case. This result can of course be improved further.
- Scattering in the energy space references.html#Na1999c Na1999c
- One also has GWP and scattering for small H^{s
_{c}} data for any septic non-linearity.

**Septic NLS on R^2**

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 2/3. - LWP is known for s ³ s
_{c}references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.- For s=s
_{c}the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.

- For s=s
- GWP for s ³ 1 by Hamiltonian conservation.
- This has been improved to s > 1-e in references.html#CoKeStTkTa2003b CoKeStTkTa2003b in the defocusing case. This result can of course be improved further.
- Scattering in the energy space references.html#Na1999c Na1999c
- One also has GWP and scattering for small H^{s
_{c}} data for any septic non-linearity.

**Septic NLS on R^3**

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 7/6. - LWP is known for s ³ s
_{c}references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.- For s=s
_{c}the time of existence depends on the profile of the data as well as the norm.

- For s=s
- GWP and scattering for small data by Strichartz estimates references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990.
- For large data one has blowup in the focusing case by the virial identity; in particular one has ill-posedness in the energy space.
- It is not known (and would be extremely interesting to find out!) what is going on in the defocusing case; for instance, is there blowup from smooth data? Even for radial data nothing seems to be known. This may be viewed as an extremely simplified model problem for the global regularity issue for Navier-Stokes.

**L^2 critical NLS on R^d**

The L^2 critical situation s_{c} = 0 occurs when p = 1 + 4/d. Note that the power non-linearity is smooth in dimensions d=1 ([#Quintic_NLS_on_R quintic NLS]) and d=2 ([#Cubic_NLS_on_R^2 cubic NLS]). One always has GWP and scattering in L^2 for small data (see references.html#Givl1978 GiVl1978, references.html#GiVl1979 GiVl1979, references.html#CaWe1990 CaWe1990; the more precise statement in the focusing case that GWP holds when the mass is strictly less than the ground state mass is in references.html#Ws1983 Ws1983); in the large data defocusing case, GWP is known in H^1 (and slightly below) but is only conjectured in L^2. No scattering result is known for large data, even in the radial smooth case.

In the focusing case, there is blowup for large L^2 data, as can be seen by applying the pseudoconformal transformation to the ground state solution. Up to the usual symmetries of the equation, this is the unique minimal mass blowup solution references.html#Me1993 Me1993. This solution blows up in H^1 like |t|^{-1} as t -> 0-. However, numerics suggest that there should be solutions that exhibit the much slower blowup |t|^{-1/2} (log log|t|)^{1/2} references.html#LanPapSucSup1988 LanPapSucSup1988; furthermore, this blowup is stable under perturbations in the energy space [MeRap-p], at least when the mass is close to the critical mass. Note that scaling shows that blowup cannot be any slower than |t|^{-1/2}.

The virial identity shows that blowup must occur when the energy is negative (which can only occur when the mass exceeds the ground state mass).Strictly speaking, the virial identity requires some decay on u – namely that x u lies in L^2, however this restriction can be relaxed (references.html#OgTs1991 OgTs1991, references.html#Nw1999 Nw1999,

references.html#GgMe1995 GgMe1995.

In [#Quintic_NLS_on_R one dimension d=1], the above blowup rate of |t|^{-1/2} (log log|t|)^{1/2} has in fact been achieved [Per-p]. Furthermore, one always this blowup behavior (or possibly slower, though one must still blow up by at least |t|^{-1/2}) whenever the energy is negative [MeRap-p], [MeRap-p2], and one either assumes that the mass is close to the critical mass or that xu is in L^2. When the energy is zero, and one is not a ground state, then one has blowup like |t|^{-1/2} (log log |t|)^{1/2} in at least one direction of time (t -> +infinity or t -> -infinity) [MeRap-p], [MeRap-p2].These results extend to higher dimensions as soon as a certain (plausible) spectral condition on the ground state is verified.

The exact nature of the blowup set is not yet fully understood, but there are some partial results.It appears that the generic rate of blowup is |t|^{-1/2} (log log|t|)^{1/2}; the exceptional rate of |t|^{-1} can occur for the self-similar solutions and also for larger solutions references.html#BoWg1997 BoWg1997, but this seems to be very rare compared to the |t|^{-1/2} (log log|t|)^{1/2} blowup solutions (which are open in H^1 close to the critical mass [MeRap-p]).In fact close to the critical mass, there is a dichotomy, in that the blowup (if it occurs) is either |t|^{-1} or faster, or |t|^{-1/2} (log log |t|)^{1/2} or slower [MeRap-p], [MeRap-p2].Also, near the blowup points the solution should have asymptotically zero energy references.html#Nw1999 Nw1999 and exhibit mass concentration references.html#Nw1992 Nw1992.

Conditions on the linearizability of this equation when the dispersion and nonlinearity are both sent to zero at controlled rates has been established in d=1,2 in [CarKer-p] (and in the L^2-supercritical case in [CarFerGal-p].A key role is played by the size of the linear solution in the relevant Strichartz space.

**Higher order NLS**

(More discussion later... Ed.)

One can study higher-order NLS equations in which the Laplacian is replaced by a higher power.One class of such examples comes from the

infinite hierarchy of commuting flows arising from the [#Cubic_NLS_on_R 1D cubic NLS].Another is the [kdv.html#Schrodinger_Airy nonlinear Schrodinger-Airy equation].

**Derivative non-linear Schrodinger**

By derivative non-linear Schrodinger (D-NLS) we refer to equations of the form

_{t}- i D u = f(u,

__u__, Du,

__Du__)

where f is an analytic function of u, its spatial derivatives Du, and their complex conjugates which vanishes to at least second order at the origin. We often assume the natural gauge invariance condition

__u__, exp(-i q)

__u__, exp(i q) Du, exp(-i q)

__Du__) = exp(i q) f(u,

__u__, Du,

__Du__).

The main new difficulty here is the loss of regularity of one derivative in the non-linearity, which causes standard techniques such as the energy method to fail (since the energy estimate does not recover any regularity in the case of the Schrodinger equation). However, there are other estimates which can recover a full derivative for the inhomogeneous Schrodinger equation providing there is sufficient decay in space, and so one can still obtain well-posedness results for sufficiently smooth and regular data. In the analytic category some existence results can be found in references.html#SnTl1985 SnTl1985, references.html#Ha1990 Ha1990.

An alternative strategy is to apply a suitable transformation in order to place the non-linearity in a good form. For instance, a term such as __u__ __Du__ is preferable to u Du (the Fourier transform is less likely to stay near the upper paraboloid, and these terms are more likely to disappear in energy estimates). One can often "gauge transform" the equation (in a manner dependent on the solution u) so that all bad terms are eliminated. In one dimension this can be done by fairly elementary methods (e.g. the method of integrating factors), but in higher dimensions one must use some pseudo-differential calculus.

In order to quantify the decay properties needed, we define H^{s,m} denote the space of all functions u for which <x>^m D^{s} u is in L^{2}; thus s measures regularity and m measures decay. It is a well-known fact that the Schrodinger equation trades decay for regularity; for instance, data in H^{m,m'} instantly evolves to a solution locally in H^{m+m'} for the free Schrodinger equation and m, m' ³ 0.

- If m ³ [d/2] + 4 is an integer then one has LWP in H^m \cap H^{m-2,2} references.html#Ci1999 Ci1999; see also references.html#Ci1996 Ci1996, references.html#Ci1995 Ci1995, references.html#Ci1994 Ci1994.
- If f is cubic or better then one can improve this to LWP in H^m references.html#Ci1999 Ci1999. Furthermore, if one also has gauge invariance then data in H^{m,m'} evolves to a solution in H^{m+m'} for all non-zero times and all positive integers m' references.html#Ci1999 Ci1999.
- If d=1 and f is cubic or better then one has LWP in H
^{3}references.html#HaOz1994b HaOz1994b.- For special types of cubic non-linearity one can in fact get GWP for small data in H^{0,4} \cap H^{4,0} references.html#Oz1996 Oz1996.

- LWP in H
^{s}\cap H^{0,m} for small data for sufficiently large s, m was shown in references.html#KnPoVe1993c KnPoVe1993c. The solution was also shown to have s+1/2 derivatives in L^{2}_{t,x,loc}.- If f is cubic or better one can take m=0references.html#KnPoVe1993c KnPoVe1993c.
- If f is quartic or better then one has GWP for small data in H
^{s}. references.html#KnPoVe1995 KnPoVe1995 - For large data one still has LWP for sufficiently large s, m references.html#Ci1995 Ci1995, references.html#Ci1994 Ci1994.

If the non-linearity consists mostly of the conjugate wave __u__, then one can do much better. For instance [Gr-p], when f = (D__u__)^k one can obtain LWP when s > s_{c} = d/2 + 1 - 1/(k-1), s³1, and k ³ 2 is an integer; similarly when f = D(__u__^k) one has LWP when s > s_{c} = d/2 - 1/(k-1), s ³0, and k ³ 2 is an integer. In particular one has GWP in L^{2} when d=1 and f = i(__u__^{2})_{x} and GWP in H^{1} when d=1 and f = i({__u__}_{x})^{2}. These results apply in both the periodic and non-periodic setting.

Non-linearities such as t^{-\alpha} |u_{x}|^{2} in one dimension have been studied in references.html#HaNm2001b HaNm2001b, with some asymptotic behaviour obtained.

In d=2 one has GWP for small data when the nonlinearities are of the form __u__ __Du__ + u Du references.html#De2002 De2002.

**Schrodinger maps**

[Many thanks to Andrea Nahmod for help with this section - Ed.]

Schrodinger maps are to the Schrodinger equation as [wave.html#wm wave maps] are to the wave equation; they are the natural Schrodinger equation when the target space is a complex manifold (such as the sphere S^{2} or hyperbolic space H^{2}). They have the form

_{t}+ D u = Gamma(u)( Du, Du )

where Gamma(u) is the second fundamental form. This is the same as the harmonic map heat flow but with an additional "i" in front of the u_{t}. When the target is S^{2}, this equation arises naturally from the Landau-Lifschitz equation for a macroscopic ferromagnetic continuum, see e.g. references.html#SucSupBds1986 SucSupBds1986; in this case the equation has the alternate form u_{t} = u x D u, where x is the cross product, and is sometimes known as the Heisenberg model; similar models exist when the target is generalized from a sphere S^{2} to a Hermitian symmetric space (see e.g. [TeUh-p]). The Schrodinger map equation is also related to the Ishimori equation references.html#Im1984 Im1984 (see references.html#KnPoVe2000 KnPoVe2000 for some recent results on this equation)

In one dimension local well posedness is known for smooth data by the [#d-nls general theory of derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equations], however this is not yet established in higher dimensions. Assuming this regularity result, there is a gauge transformation (obtained by differentiating the equation, and placing the resulting connection structure in the Coulomb gauge) which creates a null structure in the non-linearity. Roughly speaking, the equation now looks like

_{t}+ D v = Dv D

^{-1}(v v) + D

^{-1}(v v) D

^{-1}(v v) v + v

^{3}

where v := Du. The cubic term Dv D^{-1}(v v) has a null structure so that orthogonal interactions (which normally cause the most trouble with derivative

Schrodinger problems) are suppressed.

For certain special targets (e.g. complex Grassmannians) and with n=1, the Schrodinger flow is a completely integrable bi-Hamiltonian system [TeUh-p].In the case of n=1 when the target is the sphere S^{2}, the equation is equivalent to the [#Cubic_NLS_on_R cubic NLS] references.html#ZkTkh1979 ZkTkh1979, references.html#Di1999 Di1999.

As with [wave.html#wm wave maps], the scaling regularity is H^{n/2}.

- In one dimension one has global existence in the energy norm references.html#CgSaUh2000 CgSaUh2000 when the target is a compact Riemann surface; it is conjectured that this is also true for general compact Kahler manifolds.
- When the target is a complex compact Grassmannian, this is in [TeUh-p].
- In the periodic case one has local existence and uniqueness of smooth solutions, with global existence if the target is compact with constant sectional curvature references.html#DiWgy1998 DiWgy1998. The constant curvature assumption was relaxed to non-positive curvature (or Hermitian locally symmetric) in references.html#PaWghWgy2000 PaWghWgy2000. It is conjectured that one should have a global flow whenever the target is compact Kahler references.html#Di2002 Di2002.
- When the target is S
^{2}this is in references.html#ZhGouTan1991 ZhGouTan1991

- When the target is S

- In two dimensions there are results in both the radial/equivariant and general cases.
- With radial or equivariant data one has global existence in the energy norm for small energy references.html#CgSaUh2000 CgSaUh2000, assuming high regularity LWP as mentioned above.
- The large energy case may be settled in [CkGr-p], although the status of this paper is currently unclear (as of Feb 2003).

- In the general case one has LWP in H
^{s}for s > 2 references.html#NdStvUh2003 NdStvUh2003 (plus later errata), at least when the target manifold is the sphere S^{2}. It would be interesting to extend this to lower regularities, and eventually to the critical H^{1}case. (Here regularity is stated in terms of u rather than the derivatives v). - When the target is S
^{2}there are global weak solutions references.html#KnPoVe1993c KnPoVe1993c, [HaHr-p], and local existence for smooth solutions references.html#SucSupBds1986 SucSupBds1986. - When the target is H^2 one can have blowup in finite time [Di-p].Similarly for higher dimensions.

- With radial or equivariant data one has global existence in the energy norm for small energy references.html#CgSaUh2000 CgSaUh2000, assuming high regularity LWP as mentioned above.
- In general dimensions one has LWP in H
^{s}for s > n/2+1 references.html#DiWgy2001 DiWgy2001- When the target is is S
^{2}this is in references.html#SucSupBds1986 SucSupBds1986.

- When the target is is S

Some further discussion on this equation can be found in the survey references.html#Di2002 Di2002.

**Cubic DNLS on R**

Suppose the non-linearity has the form f = i (u __u__ u)_{x}. Then:

- Scaling is s
_{c}= 0. - LWP for s ³ 1/2 references.html#Tk-p Tk-p.
- This is sharp in the C uniform sense [BiLi-p] (see also references.html#Tk-p Tk-p for failure of analytic well-posedness below 1/2).
- For s ³ 1 this was proven in references.html#HaOz1994 HaOz1994.

- GWP for s>1/2 and small L
^{2}norm references.html#CoKeStTkTa2002b CoKeStTkTa2002b. The s=1/2 case remains open.- for s>2/3 and small L
^{2}norm this was proven in references.html#CoKeStTkTa2001b CoKeStTkTa2001b. - For s > 32/33 with small L
^{2}norm this was proven in references.html#Tk-p Tk-p. - For s ³ 1 and small L
^{2}norm this was proven in references.html#HaOz1994 HaOz1994. One can also handle certain pure power additional terms references.html#Oz1996 Oz1996. - The small L
^{2}norm condition is required in order to gauge transform the problem; see references.html#HaOz1993 HaOz1993, references.html#Oz1996 Oz1996.

- for s>2/3 and small L
- Solutions do not scatter to free Schrodinger solutions. In the focussing case this can be easily seen from the existence of solitons. But even in the defocussing case wave operators do not exist, and must be replaced by modified wave operators (constructed in references.html#HaOz1994 HaOz1994 for small data).

This equation has the same scaling as the [#Quintic_NLS_on_R quintic NLS], and there is a certain gauge invariance which unifies the two (together with an additional nonlinear term u __u___{x} u).

For non-linearities of the form f = a (u __u__)_{x} u + b (u __u__)_{x} u_{x} one can obtain GWP for small data references.html#KyTs1995 KyTs1995 for arbitrary complex constants a, b. See also references.html#Ts1994 Ts1994.

**Hartree equation**

[Sketchy! More to come later. Contributions are of course very welcome and will be acknowledged. - Ed.]

The Hartree equation is of the form

_{t}+ D u = V(u) u

where

__+__|x|^{-n} * |u|

^{2}

and 0 < n < d. It can thus be thought of as a non-local cubic Schrodinger equation; the cubic NLS is in some sense a limit of this equation as n -> n (perhaps after suitable normalization of the kernel |x|^{-n}, which would otherwise blow up). The analysis divides into the *short-range case* n > 1, the *long-range case* 0 < n < 1, and the *borderline (or critical) case* n=1. Generally speaking, the smaller values of n are the hardest to analyze. The + sign corresponds to defocusing nonlinearity, the - sign corresopnds to focusing.

The H^{1} critical value of n is 4, in particular the equation is always subcritical in four or fewer dimensions. For n<4 one has global existence of energy solutions. For n=4 this is only known for small energy.

In the short-range case one has scattering to solutions of the free Schrodinger equations under suitable assumptions on the data. However this is not true in the other two cases references.html#HaTs1987 HaTs1987. For instance, in the borderline case, at large times t the solution usually resembles a free solution with initial data y, twisted by a Fourier multiplier with symbol exp(i V(hat{y}) ln t). (This can be seen formally by applying the pseudo-conformal transformation, discarding the Laplacian term, and solving the resulting ODE references#GiOz1993 GiOz1993). This creates modified wave operators instead of ordinary wave operators. A similar thing happens when 1/2 < n < 1 but ln t must be replaced by t^{n-1}/(n-1).

The existence and mapping properties of these operators is only partly known:

- When n
__>__2 and n=1, the wave operators map \hat{H^{s}} to \hat{H^{s}} for s > 1/2 and are continuous and open [Nak-p3] (see also references.html#GiOz1993 GiOz1993)- For n>1 and n
__>__1 this is in references.html#NwOz1992 NwOz1992- In the defocusing case, all solutions in suitable spaces have asymptotic states in L
^{2}, and one has asymptotic completeness when n > 4/3 references.html#HaTs1987 HaTs1987.

- In the defocusing case, all solutions in suitable spaces have asymptotic states in L
- For n < 1, n ³3, and 1 - n/2 < s < 1 this is in [Nak-p4]
- In the Gevrey and real analytic categories there are some large data results in references.html#GiVl2000 GiVl2000, references.html#GiVl2000b GiVl2000b, references.html#GiVl2001 GiVl2001, covering the cases n
__<__1 and n__>__1. - For small decaying data one has some invertibility of the wave operators references.html#HaNm1998 HaNm1998

- For n>1 and n

**Maxwell-Schrodinger system in R**

^{3}This system is a partially non-relativistic analogue of the [wave.html#mkg Maxwell-Klein-Gordon system]., coupling a U(1) connection A_{a} with a complex scalar field u. The Lagrangian density is

^{ab}F

_{ab}+ 2 Im

__u__D u - D

_{j}u D

^{j}u

giving rise to the system of PDE

_{t}= D

_{j}u D

^{j}u/2 + A u

d

^{a}F

_{ab}= J

_{b}

where the current density J_{b} is given by

_{}= |u|^2; J

_{j}= - Im

__u__D

_{j}u

As with the MKG system, there is a gauge invariance for the connection; one can place A in the Lorentz, Coulomb, or Temporal gauges (other choices are of course possible).

Let us place u in H^s, and A in H^sigma x H^{sigma-1}. The lack of scale invariance makes it difficult to exactly state what the critical regularity would be, but it seems to be s = sigma = 1/2.

- In the Lorentz and Temporal gauges, one has LWP for s >= 5/3 and s-1 <= sigma <= s+1, (5s-2)/3 [NkrWad-p]
- For smooth data (s=sigma > 5/2) in the Lorentz gauge this is in references.html#NkTs1986 NkTs1986 (this result works in all dimensions)

- Global weak solutions are known in the energy class (s=sigma=1) in the Lorentz and Coulomb gauges references.html#GuoNkSr1996 GuoNkSr1996. GWP is still open however.
- Modified wave operators have been constructed in the Coulomb gauge in the case of vanishing magnetic field in [GiVl-p3], [GiVl-p5]. No smallness condition is needed on the data at infinity.
- A similar result for small data is in references.html#Ts1993 Ts1993

- In one dimension, GWP in the energy class is known references.html#Ts1995 Ts1995
- In two dimensions, GWP for smooth solutions is known references.html#TsNk1985 TsNk1985

**Quasilinear NLS (QNLS)**

These are general equations of the form

__u__+ first order terms,

where a, b_1, b_2, and the lower order terms are smooth functions of all variables.These general systems arise in certain physical models (see e.g. references.html#BdHaSau1997 BdHaSau1997).Also under certain conditions they can be derived from fully nonlinear Schrodinger equations by differentiating the equation.

In order to qualify as a quasilinear NLS, we require that the quadratic form a is real and elliptic.It is also natural to assume that the metric structure induced by a obeys a non-trapping condition (all geodesics eventually reach spatial infinity), as this is what is necessary for the optimal local smoothing estimate to occur.For a similar reason it is useful to assume that the magnetic field b_1 (or more precisely, the imaginary part of this field) is uniformly integrable along lines in space in the time independent case (for the time dependent case the criterion involves the bicharacteristic flow and is more complicated, see references.html#Ic1984 Ic1984); without this condition even the linear equation can be ill-posed.

A model example of QNLS is the equation

for smooth functions h,g.

·When V=0 local existence for small data is known in H^6(R^n) for n=1,2,3 references.html#BdHaSau1997 BdHaSau1997

oUnder certain conditions on the initial data the LWP can be extended to GWP for n=2,3 references.html#BdHaSau1997 BdHaSau1997.

oFor large data, LWP is known in H^s(R^n) for any n and any sufficiently large s > s(n) references.html#Col2002 Col2002

·For suitable choices of V LWP is also known for H^infty(R^n) for any n references.html#Pop2001 Pop2001; this uses the Nash-Moser iteration method.

In one dimension, the fully nonlinear Schrodinger equation has LWP in H^infty(R^n) assuming a cubic nonlinearity references.html#Pop2001b Pop2001b.Other LWP results for the one-dimensional QNLS have been obtained by [LimPo-p] using gauge transform arguments.

In general dimension, LWP for data in H^{s,2} for sufficiently large s has been obtained in [KnPoVe-p] assuming non-trapping, and asymptotic flatness of the metric a and of the magnetic field Im b_1 (both decaying like 1/|x|^2 or better up to derivatives of second order).