Solutions to the linear wave equation and its perturbations are either estimated in mixed space-time norms , or in spaces, defined by
Linear space-time estimates are known as Strichartz estimates. They are especially useful for the semilinear NLW without derivatives, and also have applications to other non-linearities, although the results obtained are often non-optimal (Strichartz estimates do not exploit any null structure of the equation). The spaces are used primarily for bilinear estimates, although more recently multilinear estimates have begun to appear. These spaces first appear in one-dimension in RaRe1982 and in higher dimensions in Be1983 in the context of propagation of singularities; they were used implicitly for LWP in KlMa1993, while the Schrodinger and KdV analogues were developed in Bo1993, Bo1993b.